Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites malaria is a very widespread disease in the tropics and subtropics regions of the world including africa, south asia, and south and central america, affecting over 650 million people and killing 1 to 3 million over half. The diagnosis was made based on microscopic methods a negative rapid immunochromatographic assay, based on the detection of histidine rich protein- 2 (hrp-2) of p falciparum , indicated that falciparum malaria was unlikely. Tools for diagnosis of malaria and the goals of malaria diagnosis in various settings will be reviewed here issues related to epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment, and prevention of malaria are presented separately. Literature review on malaria diagnosis malaria diagnosis: a brief review - ncbi - nih malaria diagnosis involves identifying malaria parasites or the literature clearly illustrates the reliability of ifa, so that it was usually nbsp malaria in pregnancy: a literature review. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until 3 blood specimens have been examined by an experienced microscopist.
Literature search was carried out pubmed, pubmedcentral, medline, and cochrane library for all published articles between 1991 and 2015 using search strings such as under five children, itn, malaria parasitaemia, anaemia, protective efficacy, ownership and use, pattern of deployment and types of itn. Diagnosis of malaria prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical to the effective management of malaria the global impact of malaria has spurred interest in developing effective diagnostic strategies not only for resource-limited areas where malaria is a substantial burden on society, but also in developed countries, where malaria diagnostic expertise is often lacking [4,5. Green-top guideline[rcog, 2010, malaria in pregnancy, diagnosis and treatment (green-top guideline no 54b)], management of imported malaria in europe[escmid, 2012, management of imported malaria in europe], guidelines for the treatment of malaria[who, 2015, guidelines for the treatment of malaria] and the uk malaria treatment guidelines 2016.
This review paper will certainly help new researchers to get a complete overview on microscopic image analysis for malaria screening and also assist them to find the gaps in existing literature, so that they can find some suitable approach for further modification to develop robust technique. 11 chapter 2: literature review in the two decades since hiv/aids was first identified, the body of research into the disease has been steadily growing. Despite promising results reported during the past years, the great majority of the computer-aided methods found on the literature for malaria diagnosis are based on images acquired under well controlled conditions and with proper microscopic equipment. Objective—to review the current literature regarding diagnostic methods available to detect clinical malaria, with an emphasis on comparing the strengths and. Create barriers to improved malaria case management (diagnosis and treatment) and improved diagnosis and treatment of other febrile illnesses the list is a compilation of data gathered through the literature review and.
Risk factors associated with malaria deaths in travellers: a literature review beda lu¨thi , patricia schlagenhauf university of zu¨rich centre for travel medicine, who collaborating centre for travellers' health. Malaria is a major cause of death in tropical and sub-tropical countries, killing each year over 1 million people globally 90% of fatalities occur in african children. Symptoms of uncomplicated malaria are very non-specific, and can include fever, chills, body-aches, headache, cough, and diarrhoea, making clinical diagnosis unreliable in non-endemic areas, taking an accurate travel history in all patients with fever is the key to making the diagnosis. Locally specific epidemiological understanding is pivotal to the success of malaria elimination in south africa here, we focus on how the host, vector, parasite and environment and their interactions have influenced malaria incidence in south africa between 1995 and 2012.
Malaria in pregnancy: a literature review malaria is caused by the four species of the protozoa of the genus plasmodium, which is transmitted by the bite of the female anopheline mosquito. The aim of this literature review is to compare and evaluate different malaria rdts detecting either hrp-2 or pldh, as well as some combo rdts to find an optimal test for routine use for p falciparum diagnosis in mozambique. A literature review in pubmed was conducted in march 2013 to identify all prospective clinical trials (uncontrolled trials, controlled trials and randomized controlled trials), including acts conducted in sub-saharan africa, between 1960 and 2012.
The tropical medicine foundation of amazonas is a tertiary care center for infectious diseases in manaus (3°8′s, 60°1′w) in 2001 and 2002, a total of 13,056 cases of malaria were diagnosed in this institution (11,251 p vivax), representing 651% of the total cases from manaus. Chapter 2 2 literature review 21 the malaria parasites thus, the first signs and symptoms of malaria are fever followed by headache, chills and vomiting these. Rapid tests have been an important addition to microscopy for malaria diagnosis chemopreventive strategies have been increasingly deployed in africa, notably intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment in pregnancy, and monthly amodiaquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during the rainy season months in children aged between 3 months and.
The aim of this study was to review the scientific literature published until early 2017 to summarise existing knowledge on the efficacy and safety of mb in the treatment of malaria methods this systematic review followed prisma guidelines. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic single-celled microorganisms belonging to the plasmodium group malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches. Malaria, with 225 million people developing clinical malaria in 2009 (78% in africa), and n 106 countries, and while parasite-based diagnosis is increasing, most suspected cases of malaria.