Abstract we discuss a revision of the standard model for big bang nucleosynthesis which allows for the presence of generic particle species the primordial production of 4 he and d + 3 he is calculated as a function of the mass, spin degrees of freedom, and spin statistics of the generic particle for masses in the range 10 −2 ≲ m/m e ≲ 10 2. Predictions of the big bang nucleosynthesis and the pre-galactic abundances of the elements inferred from the observations can be made in this paper the author will provide an overview of the standard hot big bang model. N2 - we present an overview of the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (bbn), which describes the production of the light elements in the early universe the theoretical prediction for the abundances of d, 3he, 4he, and 7li is discussed. Standard big bang nucleosynthesis only involves particles which are part of the standard model - ie excludes dark matter is this justified well, dark matter is non-interacting (or so weakly interacting that we can't detect it), therefore it does not interact strongly with baryons and photons during the epoch of nucleon formation.
The abundances of light elements based on the big bang nucleosynthesis model are calculated using the tsallis non-extensive statistics the impact of the variation of the non-extensive parameter q. Following a recent suggestion of axion cooling of photons between the nucleosynthesis and recombination epochs in the early universe, we investigate a hybrid model with both axions and relic supersymmetric particles. Nucleosynthesis the big bang model predicts that nucleosynthesis, the process by which the elements formed, began approximately 100 seconds after the big bangdriven by the immense temperature and pressure, nuclear fusion reactions converted hydrogen into helium. Arxiv:hep-ph/9602260v2 15 sep 1996 review article big bang nucleosynthesis and physics beyond the standard model subir sarkar department of physics, university of oxford, 1 keble road, oxford ox1 3np, uk.
Big bang nucleosynthesis began roughly 10 seconds after the big bang, when the universe had cooled sufficiently to allow deuterium nuclei to survive disruption by high-energy photons (note that the neutron-proton freeze-out time was earlier. Big bang nucleosynthesis began a few seconds after the big bang, when the universe had cooled sufficiently to allow deuterium nuclei to survive disruption by high-energy photons. The big bang is the singular cataclysmic event that started it all: the instant 138 billion years ago that marked the fiery birth of the universe no one was there to bear witness, of course, but. Cosmology, and the review article big bang nucleosynthesis and physics beyond the standard model the complete list of references used can be found on the last page of this document. Big bang nucleosynthesis gamow, alpher and herman proposed the hot big bang as a means to produce all of the elements however, the lack of stable nuclei with atomic weights of 5 or 8 limited the big bang to producing hydrogen and helium.
The big bang nucleosynthesis standard model standard bbn vanishing lepton number chemical potentials equilibrium initial conditions with baryon−to−photon ratio. Pos(nic xii)070 big bang nucleosynthesis toshitaka kajino 1 introduction one of the biggest questions in modern cosmology is why the universe is most likely ﬂat. The comparison between models of big bang nucleosynthesis and observations requires both good observations and good model calculations the input parameters to the model calculation include the density of baryons relative to the cosmic background radiation, the number of neutrino families, and a set of nuclear reaction rates derived from.
Rep prog phys 59 (1996) 1493-1609 printed in the uk big bang nucleosynthesis and physics beyond the standard model subir sarkar department of physics, university of oxford, 1 keble road, oxford ox1 3np, uk. Abstract = we present a detailed reexamination of primordial big-bang nucleosynthesis (bbn), concentrating on the data for the main nuclear reactions leading to the production of 7li, 3he, and d, and on the neutron half-life, relevant for 4he production. Nucleosynthesis in the early universe the term nucleosynthesis refers to the formation of heavy elements, atomic nuclei with many protons and neutrons, from the collision of light elements the big bang theory predicts that the early universe was a very hot place. Big bang nucleosynthesis one of the primary successes of the big bang theory is its explanation for the chemical composition of the universe recall that the universe is mostly hydrogen and helium, with very small amounts of heavier elements.
We have studied the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model with three right-handed neutrinos, and investigated whether there still is a parameter region consistent with all experimental data/limits such as the baryon asymmetry of the universe, the dark matter abundance and the lithium primordial abundance. In the first half the predictions from big bang nucleosynthesis are studied when the requirements of only three relativistic neutrino flavors and a small electron neutrino chemical potential are relaxed. In physical cosmology, big bang nucleosynthesis (or primordial nucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than h-1, the normal, light hydrogen, during the early phases of the. Big bang nucleosynthesis was incapable to produce heavier atomic nuclei such as those necessary to build human bodies or a planet like the earth instead, those nuclei were formed in the interior of stars.
For a movie of big bang nucleosynthesis, click here for more info, click here in 1950's and 60's, predominant theory regarding formation of chemical elements in universe postulated that all elements produced either in star interiors or during supernova explosions. A critical review is given of the current status of cosmological nucleosynthesis in the framework of the standard model with 3 types of relativistic neutrinos, the baryon-to-photon ratio, $\eta$, corresponding to the inferred primordial abundances of deuterium and helium-4 is consistent with the independent determination of $\eta$ from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave. 20 big-bang nucleosynthesis 3 figure 201: the abundances of 4he, d, 3he and 7li as predicted by the standard model of big-bang nucleosynthesis boxes indicate the observed light element. The term nucleosynthesis refers to the formation of heavier elements, atomic nuclei with many protons and neutrons, from the fusion of lighter elements the big bang theory predicts that the early universe was a very hot place one second after the big bang, the temperature of the universe was.